Friday, June 22, 2018

Human senses- Identification of six senses in the human

Six human senses

I would like to share my immense happiness on the publication of research "Identification of sixth sense" and getting attention in other countries too. 

Aristotle (390 BCE-350 BCE), the Greek philosopher has viewed that human has five senses-vision, smell, hearing, taste, and touch. In our current research project (2014-2018), we were able to draw that human has six senses. 

(How to cite this article: Jobin, P., Siva, R., Sudha, R., & Hema, V.H. (2018). Intersensory Perception Model: Integrating the sixth sense in providing Nursing care. Manipal Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences, 4(1), 8-17.)

The paper defines the sense or sensing is an ability of a human being for identifying and interpreting the stimulus from the external environment through five sensory organs includes eye, nose, ear, tongue, and skin with six senses such as vision, smell, hearing, taste, touch, and auto-thermoception. 

The sensing is categorized into three:

On sight sensing

It is an ability of a human being to see and interpret the surrounding environment in the visible light through the sensory organ called eyes and the response of the nervous system is known as ophthalmoception.

Abut sensing

The word 'abut' is the Anglo-Latin origin, which means 'touch'. It is an ability of the human being to identify and interpret the surrounding environment by making physical contact through sensory organs such as skin and tongue. The response of the nervous system through tongue is called as gustaoception (taste- for example, ability to interpret taste with the contact between tongue and food) and through the skin with the contact of items is called as thermoception (temperature- for instance, ability to differentiate the high and low temperature with the contact between skin and thermal conductor), nociception (pain - for instance, ability to respond to pain with the contact between skin and needle) and mechanoreception (vibration- for example, ability to identify the vibration with the contact between skin and vibrating material).

Remote sensing

Remote sensing is an ability of the human being to acquire and interpret the surrounding environment without making physical contact and out of sight through sensory organs such as ear, nose, and skin. The response of the nervous system through ear is known as audioception (hearing- for instance, the ability of the human ears to acquire the sound waves from the surrounding) and through nose is olfacception (smell- for instance, ability of the human nose to acquire the smell of the particles from the surrounding). The body is covered with skin, which is normally sensitive to heat and cold. The ability of the skin to identify the level of room temperature in the surrounding environment without touching called auto-thermoception.

The figure explains the three modalities of sensing and highlights five sensory organs and six senses.

Wednesday, June 6, 2018

Curriculum- Functions, features and types

Curriculum- Functions, features, and types
Functions of a curriculum
  • It states objectives to modify the behavior of the students
  • It offers the subject matter to teach the students
  • It is a platform of learning experiences planned by the school for the students
  • It gives opportunities to the students to mold and to grow in the society
  • It is flexible based on the needs of the society
A nursing curriculum is planned based on the health needs and issues of the society. It is influenced by the policy decisions based on the national health programs.

Features of an outstanding curriculum
  • It should describe theory and way of putting theory into practice
  • It should be able to cope up with the scientific advancements
  • It should deliver knowledge in an efficient and economical way
  • It helps the students to utilize knowledge to live in reality
  • It facilitates the professional and personal growth of students
  • It gives a space for students to think, develop and contribute to the existing body of knowledge
Types of curriculum
Based on philosophical, psychological and sociological principles, there are a few types of curriculum. 
  • Subject-centered curriculum- More emphasis on subjects rather than on children. The students are expected to gain mastery of subject matters that have been predetermined by a panel of experts.
  • Child-centered curriculum- The students determine the direction of their learning following their natural curiosities, interests, and passions. The teacher's role is to facilitate the child's learning by providing a comfortable environment for them. 
  • Activity curriculum- It is also called as a project or experience curriculum. The curriculum is designed based on the interests and purposes of the children being planned cooperatively by the teacher and students. This method is just opposite to passive learning through lectures and observation.
  • Experience curriculum- The child learns from the events, people, the social and emotional environment of the classroom. It also considers that the social experience of the child has an educational value.
  • Undifferentiated curriculum- It aims the development of all-around personality fo the child through integrated experiences by the unification of the subjects. 
  • Basic education curriculum- The purpose is to provide a comprehensive conceptualization of reforms in basic education; pre-primary, primary, secondary and inclusive education.
  • Life centered curriculum- It is designed for students with learning disabilities, aiming to teach the basic life skills to live in the society.
  • Correlated curriculum- It means the establishment of relationships among the various subjects by planning a serious sequence of experiences in one subject field.
  • Integrated curriculum- It means the unification of two or more subjects together to improve student achievements.
  • Official curriculum- In which, the course of the study, duration and aims are officially or traditionally understood by everyone.
  • Institutional curriculum- This curriculum had designed based on the needs of the institution.

Wednesday, May 30, 2018

Curriculum- concepts and models of curriculum in nursing education

Curriculum- concepts and models of the curriculum in nursing education

It is a very well planned blueprint of the educational activities in an academic year. It consists of assessing the needs and demands of the society, formulating objectives, planning teaching-learning process, implementing and evaluating its outcome. A nursing curriculum is a systematic arrangement of the sum total of selected experiences planned by a school for a defined group of students to attain the aims of a particular educational programme. 

The modern concept of the curriculum:
The modern society needs the children to be equipped with the overall development including curricular, co-curricular, and extracurricular achievements. The secondary education commision said that according to the best modern educational thought, the curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects traditionally taught in the school but it includes the totality of the experiences that a pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school- in the classroom, library, playgrounds and in the numerous informal contacts between the teachers and pupils. In this case, the whole life of the school becomes the curriculum which can touch the lives of the students at all points and help in the development of a balanced personality. 

The types of curriculum
Through the readings of Smith and co, the four types are;
  1. Explicit curriculum
  2. Implicit curriculum
  3. Hidden curriculum
  4. Excluded curriculum
Explicit curriculum: The mission of the school is delivered through the subjects taught in the school. The school expects the successful students to acquire it.

Implicit curriculum: The lessons that arise with the culture of the school and it is characterized by behaviors, attitudes, and expectations of the school and students.

Hidden curriculum: The things which the students learn because of the way in which the work of the school is planned and organized but which are not in themselves overtly included in the planning or even in the consciousness of those responsible for the school arrangements. 

Excluded curriculum: In which, the specified topics and perspectives are completely excluded from the curriculum.

The development of the curriculum:
It has seven steps;
  1. Assessment of the needs
  2. Formulation of the objectives
  3. Selection of content 
  4. Organization of the content
  5. Selection of learning experiences
  6. Organization of learning experiences
  7. Determination of evaluation methods.
Models of curriculum development
The behavioral objective model
This model was developed by Ralph Taylor. He suggested that a curriculum should be able to answer the four fundamental questions. They are
  1. What the educational purposes should the school seek to attain, ie, objectives?
  2. How can learning experiences be selected that are likely to be useful in attaining these objectives?
  3. How can learning experiences be organized for effective instruction?
  4. How can the effectiveness of learning experiences be evaluated?
This model gives important to the achievement of the objectives by the student. This model mainly supports four main components such as objectives, content, method, and evaluation.

Stenhouse's process model
It emphasizes on learning experiences or the process of education. He said that it was possible to organize the curriculum without thinking about the expected outcomes of the students. The teacher's role is a learner and has to strive excellence in learning and teaching process. The teacher should appraise the student's work and enhance the self-appraisal ability among the students.

Beattie's Four fold model
It has main three aspects;
  1. The curriculum is a key map of key subjects
  2. The curriculum is a schedule of basic skills
  3. The curriculum is a meaningful portfolio of personal experiences
  4. The curriculum is delivering the culture to next generations
It is really important to understand that when you decide the curriculum, all the aspects such as aims, content, teaching process, learning process and evaluation process integrated with the culture, needs, demands, and issues of the society should be included. 

Thursday, May 17, 2018

Inter-sensory perception model: Integrating the sixth sense in providing nursing care

Inter-sensory perception model: Integrating the sixth sense in providing nursing care
Published in: Manipal Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences, 4(1), 8-17.
Introduction: In 21st century, nursing profession is enriched with many theories. However, there exists a wide gap between knowledge and implementation of nursing care. 

Aim: The paper explains causes of this gap and addresses a solution using a conceptual model titled “Intersensory perception in nursing care ‘under empirical concept’ open your  sixth sense in addition to five traditional senses.” 

Methods: A qualitative case study design was used for testing the conceptual model. 

Results: The paper classifies the different modalities of sensing, adds one more nontraditional sense (auto thermoception) to five traditional senses and depicts how general sensory perception can be upgraded to inter-sensory perception among nurses through nursing education process, which is pictured as nursing foundry lab model. It also explains that how nurses can identify homeostatic imbalance among human beings using intersensory perception and help the patient to retain homeostasis. Further, a comparative analysis is done with Florence Nightingale’s environmental theory and criterion based critique model is used to evaluate the role of inter-sensory perception in nursing care. 

Conclusion: Hopefully, these concepts pave the way to implement an effective nursing care using inter-sensory perception and reduce unintentional torts by overcoming ‘numbness’ of senses.

Key words: Conceptual model, inter-sensory perception, nursing theory, sensing, sixth sense

Tuesday, March 6, 2018

Blooms taxonomy objectives-Psychomotor domain

Blooms taxonomy objectives-Psychomotor domain
Simpson (1972) proposed the seven levels to describe the ability to manipulate a tool or instrument physically like a hammer or a hand. 

The levels are

  1. Perception
  2. Set
  3. Guided response
  4. Mechanism
  5. Complex overt response
  6. Adaptation
  7. Origination
The ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activity. This level ranges from the reception of stimuli to translation to action. For eg. a nurse adjusts the height of the bed depends on the patient's height.

The verbs used are chooses, describes, detects, differentiates, identifies, isolates, distinguishes.

This level is concerned with readiness to act: physical, mental and emotional sets. It determines a person's response to different situations. For eg. a nurse understands patient's likes and dislikes of food pattern.

The verbs used are begins, moves, reacts, shows, starts, proceeds, volunteers, displays, initiates.

Guided response
This level is seen in early stages of learning that includes imitation and trial and errors. Adequacy of performance is achieved by persistent practicing. For eg., a student nurse learns to do IM injections among the peer group.

The verbs used are copies, traces, follows, reacts, reproduces, responds

This level includes the intermediate stage of learning a complex skill. The student is able to practice learned skills successfully with confidence and proficiency. For eg. the nurse is able to insert IV cannulas at first attempt without any failure.

The verbs used are assembles, calibrates, constructs, displays, manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, sketches.

Complex overt response
It involves complex movement patterns. The student is able to perform skills with a quick, accurate, highly coordinated using minimum energy without any failures. For eg. the nurse is able to insert an IV cannula in a severely dehydrated patient at first attempt.

The verbs used are builds, constructs, fastens, fixes

Skills of the student are well defined and able to perform in any type of situations. For eg. the nurse is able to insert IV cannula without a tourniquet in a disaster emergency situation outside the hospital.

The verbs used are adapts, alters, changes, revises, varies, reorganizes

The student is able to create new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or to solve problems. For eg. the nurse is able to develop innovative methods to reduce the pain of patients while IV cannula insertion.

The verbs used are arranges, builds, constructs, composes, creates, innovates, develops, initiates, makes.

Thursday, February 22, 2018

Bloom's taxonomy of objectives- Affective domain

Bloom's taxonomy of objectives- Affective domain

Francis M Quinn described that it is the way the people react emotionally and their ability to feel on the other things. It includes values and attitudes. Values refer to the person's concept of what she or he considers desirable and attitudes are positive or negative feelings about certain things. 
They are five levels in the affective domain moving from low level to high level.

  1. Receiving
  2. Responding
  3. Valuing 
  4. Organization
  5. Characterization

In this level, the student passively or actively listens to the information. Without this level, no learning occurs. The verbs can be used are attends, listens and receives. 
For eg. The student listens to the patient during history collection.

The student actively participates not only listens but also responds to the information too.The verbs can be used are replies, respond, asks, confirms etc.
For eg. The student clarifies the doubt on the information of the patient by confirming with relatives. 

Here, the student attaches a value to an object, phenomenon or a piece of information. Verbs can be used are respects, regards, favors, recognizes and honors.
For eg. The student respects the belongings of the patient and uses for care instead of hospital supplies. 

The student put all the information together, relates, compares and differentiates and organizes together.
Verbs can be used are arranges, order, combine and modifies.
For eg. The student combines personal, family, social information together to study and work on the patient as 'individual' entity.

This is the highest level of knowledge and the student tries to build philosophies in the life based on the gained knowledge.
Verbs can be used are formulates, develops, innovates and articulates.
For eg. Based on the existing information of the patient, the student plans a complete care and able to execute successfully. 

Affective domain guides the student to innoculate new attitudes and modify the behaviors based on the situation and needs of the society.

Wednesday, January 24, 2018

Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives- Cognitive domain

Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives- Cognitive domain
These objectives were developed by Benjamin Bloom, who chaired the committee of educators that devised the taxonomy. Bloom's taxonomy is a classification of educational objectives using a set of three hierarchical models, named cognitive, affective and sensory domains. 

The cognitive domain
It is mainly focused on the traditional way of education to structure the curriculum objectives, assessments, and activities. It has divided into six categories and they are:
  • Remembering
  • Comprehending
  • Applying
  • Analyzing
  • Synthesizing
  • Evaluating 
It involves recalling facts, terms or concepts with out an understanding what they mean.It represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain. For example: learning of classifications or categories. Name the pairs of chromosomes. Majority of the students try to learn by heart and able to recall names without thinking or to memorize something, only for exams.

Verbs can be used to state the objectives are: define, state, list, name, outline, write, recall, recognize, label, underline, select, measure, describe, identify etc.
It involves understanding of facts by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting and extrapolating it. Organization means a student can organize the ideas based on hierarchy or occurrence. The comparison means comparing similarities and differences of facts each other. Translation means communicating ideas in other words or languages without altering the meaning. Interpretation means ability to explain a fact in their own words without altering the meaning. Extrapolation means foreseeing or predicting the unknown events by understanding the known events. For example; Identify the differences between the chromosome and chromatin.
Verbs can be used to state the objectives are: identify, select, compare, translate, interpret, extrapolate, justify, organize, indicate, illustrate, represent, formulate, judge, classify etc.

Applying involves a student to solve daily problems in new situations with learned knowledge successfully. Learners are able to identify, relate prior knowledge and to apply in situations. It requires a higher level of understanding of facts and ideas to apply in an unexpected situation.
For example, a learner is able to give first aid in real life situation.

Verbs can be used to state the objectives are:  predict, select, assess, explain, choose, find, show, demonstrate, construct, compute, use, perform, discover, prepare, produce and relate.

This refers to examining and breaking information into parts, constructing relation to each other, making a generalization and finding evidences to support generalization. For example, an expert in nursing examined the concept of nursing care, broke into different parts, arranged in a synchronized manner such as assessment, goals, diagnosis, plan of action, rationale, implementation and evaluation, which helps the learners to give nursing care in an uniform manner.

Verbs can be used to state the objectives are: analyse, identify, conclude, differentiate, select, separate, compare, contrast, justify, resolve, distinguish etc.

It includes the action of putting all related elements together and to form a 'whole'. It helps to formulate a new concepts or patterns.

Verbs can be used to state the objectives are:  combine, summarize, precise, conclude, compile, compose etc.

It involves presenting opinions by making judgment about the utility of work or quality of work based on a set of criteria. For example, which educational philosophy are best for curriculum implementation today?
 Verbs can be used to state the objectives are: evaluate, judge, compare, contrast etc..