Thursday, May 17, 2018

Inter-sensory perception model: Integrating the sixth sense in providing nursing care

Inter-sensory perception model: Integrating the sixth sense in providing nursing care
Published in: Manipal Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences, 4(1), 8-17.
Introduction: In 21st century, nursing profession is enriched with many theories. However, there exists a wide gap between knowledge and implementation of nursing care. 

Aim: The paper explains causes of this gap and addresses a solution using a conceptual model titled “Intersensory perception in nursing care ‘under empirical concept’ open your  sixth sense in addition to five traditional senses.” 

Methods: A qualitative case study design was used for testing the conceptual model. 

Results: The paper classifies the different modalities of sensing, adds one more nontraditional sense (auto thermoception) to five traditional senses and depicts how general sensory perception can be upgraded to inter-sensory perception among nurses through nursing education process, which is pictured as nursing foundry lab model. It also explains that how nurses can identify homeostatic imbalance among human beings using intersensory perception and help the patient to retain homeostasis. Further, a comparative analysis is done with Florence Nightingale’s environmental theory and criterion based critique model is used to evaluate the role of inter-sensory perception in nursing care. 

Conclusion: Hopefully, these concepts pave the way to implement an effective nursing care using inter-sensory perception and reduce unintentional torts by overcoming ‘numbness’ of senses.

Key words: Conceptual model, inter-sensory perception, nursing theory, sensing, sixth sense

Tuesday, March 6, 2018

Blooms taxonomy objectives-Psychomotor domain

Blooms taxonomy objectives-Psychomotor domain
Simpson (1972) proposed the seven levels to describe the ability to manipulate a tool or instrument physically like a hammer or a hand. 

The levels are

  1. Perception
  2. Set
  3. Guided response
  4. Mechanism
  5. Complex overt response
  6. Adaptation
  7. Origination
The ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activity. This level ranges from the reception of stimuli to translation to action. For eg. a nurse adjusts the height of the bed depends on the patient's height.

The verbs used are chooses, describes, detects, differentiates, identifies, isolates, distinguishes.

This level is concerned with readiness to act: physical, mental and emotional sets. It determines a person's response to different situations. For eg. a nurse understands patient's likes and dislikes of food pattern.

The verbs used are begins, moves, reacts, shows, starts, proceeds, volunteers, displays, initiates.

Guided response
This level is seen in early stages of learning that includes imitation and trial and errors. Adequacy of performance is achieved by persistent practicing. For eg., a student nurse learns to do IM injections among the peer group.

The verbs used are copies, traces, follows, reacts, reproduces, responds

This level includes the intermediate stage of learning a complex skill. The student is able to practice learned skills successfully with confidence and proficiency. For eg. the nurse is able to insert IV cannulas at first attempt without any failure.

The verbs used are assembles, calibrates, constructs, displays, manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, sketches.

Complex overt response
It involves complex movement patterns. The student is able to perform skills with a quick, accurate, highly coordinated using minimum energy without any failures. For eg. the nurse is able to insert an IV cannula in a severely dehydrated patient at first attempt.

The verbs used are builds, constructs, fastens, fixes

Skills of the student are well defined and able to perform in any type of situations. For eg. the nurse is able to insert IV cannula without a tourniquet in a disaster emergency situation outside the hospital.

The verbs used are adapts, alters, changes, revises, varies, reorganizes

The student is able to create new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or to solve problems. For eg. the nurse is able to develop innovative methods to reduce the pain of patients while IV cannula insertion.

The verbs used are arranges, builds, constructs, composes, creates, innovates, develops, initiates, makes.

Thursday, February 22, 2018

Bloom's taxonomy of objectives- Affective domain

Bloom's taxonomy of objectives- Affective domain

Francis M Quinn described that it is the way the people react emotionally and their ability to feel on the other things. It includes values and attitudes. Values refer to the person's concept of what she or he considers desirable and attitudes are positive or negative feelings about certain things. 
They are five levels in the affective domain moving from low level to high level.

  1. Receiving
  2. Responding
  3. Valuing 
  4. Organization
  5. Characterization

In this level, the student passively or actively listens to the information. Without this level, no learning occurs. The verbs can be used are attends, listens and receives. 
For eg. The student listens to the patient during history collection.

The student actively participates not only listens but also responds to the information too.The verbs can be used are replies, respond, asks, confirms etc.
For eg. The student clarifies the doubt on the information of the patient by confirming with relatives. 

Here, the student attaches a value to an object, phenomenon or a piece of information. Verbs can be used are respects, regards, favors, recognizes and honors.
For eg. The student respects the belongings of the patient and uses for care instead of hospital supplies. 

The student put all the information together, relates, compares and differentiates and organizes together.
Verbs can be used are arranges, order, combine and modifies.
For eg. The student combines personal, family, social information together to study and work on the patient as 'individual' entity.

This is the highest level of knowledge and the student tries to build philosophies in the life based on the gained knowledge.
Verbs can be used are formulates, develops, innovates and articulates.
For eg. Based on the existing information of the patient, the student plans a complete care and able to execute successfully. 

Affective domain guides the student to innoculate new attitudes and modify the behaviors based on the situation and needs of the society.

Wednesday, January 24, 2018

Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives- Cognitive domain

Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives- Cognitive domain
These objectives were developed by Benjamin Bloom, who chaired the committee of educators that devised the taxonomy. Bloom's taxonomy is a classification of educational objectives using a set of three hierarchical models, named cognitive, affective and sensory domains. 

The cognitive domain
It is mainly focused on the traditional way of education to structure the curriculum objectives, assessments, and activities. It has divided into six categories and they are:
  • Remembering
  • Comprehending
  • Applying
  • Analyzing
  • Synthesizing
  • Evaluating 
It involves recalling facts, terms or concepts with out an understanding what they mean.It represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain. For example: learning of classifications or categories. Name the pairs of chromosomes. Majority of the students try to learn by heart and able to recall names without thinking or to memorize something, only for exams.

Verbs can be used to state the objectives are: define, state, list, name, outline, write, recall, recognize, label, underline, select, measure, describe, identify etc.
It involves understanding of facts by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting and extrapolating it. Organization means a student can organize the ideas based on hierarchy or occurrence. The comparison means comparing similarities and differences of facts each other. Translation means communicating ideas in other words or languages without altering the meaning. Interpretation means ability to explain a fact in their own words without altering the meaning. Extrapolation means foreseeing or predicting the unknown events by understanding the known events. For example; Identify the differences between the chromosome and chromatin.
Verbs can be used to state the objectives are: identify, select, compare, translate, interpret, extrapolate, justify, organize, indicate, illustrate, represent, formulate, judge, classify etc.

Applying involves a student to solve daily problems in new situations with learned knowledge successfully. Learners are able to identify, relate prior knowledge and to apply in situations. It requires a higher level of understanding of facts and ideas to apply in an unexpected situation.
For example, a learner is able to give first aid in real life situation.

Verbs can be used to state the objectives are:  predict, select, assess, explain, choose, find, show, demonstrate, construct, compute, use, perform, discover, prepare, produce and relate.

This refers to examining and breaking information into parts, constructing relation to each other, making a generalization and finding evidences to support generalization. For example, an expert in nursing examined the concept of nursing care, broke into different parts, arranged in a synchronized manner such as assessment, goals, diagnosis, plan of action, rationale, implementation and evaluation, which helps the learners to give nursing care in an uniform manner.

Verbs can be used to state the objectives are: analyse, identify, conclude, differentiate, select, separate, compare, contrast, justify, resolve, distinguish etc.

It includes the action of putting all related elements together and to form a 'whole'. It helps to formulate a new concepts or patterns.

Verbs can be used to state the objectives are:  combine, summarize, precise, conclude, compile, compose etc.

It involves presenting opinions by making judgment about the utility of work or quality of work based on a set of criteria. For example, which educational philosophy are best for curriculum implementation today?
 Verbs can be used to state the objectives are: evaluate, judge, compare, contrast etc..